Visita al renaciente, antes casi olvidado, tejido graso pardo

  • Arturo Orrego M. Asociación Colombiana de Endocrinología, Diabetes y Metabolismo

Resumen

El tejido adiposo juega un papel central en la nutrición, el balance energético y la salud en los humanos. Existen dos tipos de tejido adiposo: el blanco (TAB) y el pardo (TAP). El TAB conserva la energía, mientras que el TAP la utiliza.
El exceso de nutrición y la inactividad física dan origen a un incremento del TAB y a la obesidad. En cambio el TAP es termogénico, debido a una proteína única desacopladora (UCP1).
Esta proteína localizada en la parte interna de la membrana mitocondrial desacopla la respiración mitocondrial, produciendo tanto energía como calor. Esta propiedad esencial protege a los animales de la hipotermia.
La creencia tradicional de que el TAP sólo existe en infantes y no en adultos retrasó la investigación en humanos. Pero el descubrimiento de que la grasa del adulto presentaba una alta actividad metabólica como lo demostraba la tomografía por emisión de positrones (TEP) hizo que los investigadores se interesaran nuevamente en el TAP y que se reiniciara la investigación sobre este tejido, su identificación, la prevalencia, regulación, localización, abundancia y su importancia en el humano.

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Médico Internista Endocrinólogo, Miembro Honorario de la Asociación Colombiana de Endocrinología, Diabetes y Metabolismo.

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Publicado
2017-03-21
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ORREGO M., Arturo. Visita al renaciente, antes casi olvidado, tejido graso pardo. Revista Colombiana de Endocrinología, Diabetes & Metabolismo, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 4, p. 11-18, mar. 2017. ISSN 2389-9786. Disponible en: <http://revistaendocrino.org/index.php/rcedm/article/view/45>. Fecha de acceso: 11 ago. 2020
Sección
Articulos de Revisión