Circunstancias ambientales que pueden haber influido en la pandemia por COVID-19

  • F. Lizcano Universidad de la Sabana
  • M. G. Girone Asociación Colombiana de Endocrinología, Diabetes y Metabolismo


La pandemia por COVID-19 ha desatado un estremecimiento en las bases sociales en todos los países del mundo, con unas circunstancias que tendrán implicaciones sanitarias, culturales, económicas y sociales que marcarán el inicio del siglo XXI. Para conocer los eventos que desencadenaron esta epidemia, podemos analizar a través de una serie de preguntas cuáles fueron los hechos objetivos que marcaron su inicio; al mirar en retrospectiva estos hechos podríamos tener una luz sobre cómo prevenir eventos de esta índole en el futuro. ¿Cuáles fueron las circunstancias que desencadenaron la pandemia? ¿Fue una serie de transmisiones zoonóticas que produjeron la infección en los humanos? ¿El ambiente ha tenido algo que ver? El desafio de las grandes potencias mundiales para mantener la hegemonía dará curso a una plétora de investigaciones acerca de la biología del virus, las variables epidemiológicas, posibles vacunas y las formas de prevención de los desenlaces fatales en las personas con enfermedades crónicas de riesgo cardiovascular. En el presente manuscrito se pretende analizar algunos de estos cuestionamientos.



Biografía del autor


Centro de Investigación Biomédica. Universidad de La Sabana, CIBUS, Chía. Fundación Cardioinfantil, Bogotá, Colombia.


Miembro de Número, Asociación Colombina de Endocrinología. 


1. Corman VM, Muth D, Niemeyer D, Drosten C. Hosts and Sources of Endemic Human Coronaviruses. Adv Virus Res. 2018;100:163-188. doi:10.1016/ bs.aivir.2018.01.001
2. Wan Y, Shang J, Graham R, Baric RS, Li F. Receptor Recognition by the Novel Coronavirus from Wuhan: an Analysis Based on Decade-Long Structural Studies of SARS Coronavirus. J Virol. 2020;94(7):e00127-20. doi:10.1128/ JVI.00127-20
3. Wrapp D, Wang N, Corbett KS, Goldsmith JA, Hsieh CL, Abiona O, et al. Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation. Science. 2020;367(6483):1260-1263. doi:10.1126/science.abb2507
4. Coutard B, Valle C, de Lamballerie X, Canard B, Seidah NG, Decroly E. The spike glycoprotein of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV contains a furin-like cleavage site absent in CoV of the same clade. Antiviral Res. 2020;176:104742. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104742
5. Liu PP, Blet A, Smyth D, Li H. The Science Underlying COVID-19: Implications for the Cardiovascular System. Circulation. 2020;10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047549. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047549
6. Andersen KG, Rambaut A, Lipkin WI, Holmes EC, Garry RF. The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nat Med. 2020;26(4):450-452. doi:10.1038/s41591- 020-0820-9
7. Wong MH [Internet]. 3 billion journeys: World’s biggest human migration begins in China. CNN news (Shanghái: CNN Traveler). Disponible en:
8. Rothan HA, Byrareddy SN. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. J Autoimmun. 2020;109:102433. doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102433.
9. Center for Health Security. 2019-nCoV Update. En: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Public Health; 2020.
10. Peeri NC, Shrestha N, Rahman MS, Zaki R, Tan Z, Bibi S, et al.The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics, the newest and biggest global health threats: what lessons have we learned? Int J Epidemiol. 2020;dyaa033. doi:10.1093/ije/dyaa033
11. Rudan I. A cascade of causes that led to the COVID-19 tragedy in Italy and in other European Union countries. J Glob Health. 2020;10(1):010335. doi:10.7189/jogh-10-010335
12. Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 30;382(18):1708-1720. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2002032
13. Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA. 2020;10.1001/jama.2020.2648. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.2648
14. WHO [Internet]. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Pandemic. New York: WHO. Disponible en:
15. Dean KR, Krauer F, Walløe L, Lingjærde OC, Bramanti B, Stenseth NC, et al. Human ectoparasites and the spread of plague in Europe during the Second Pandemic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115(6):1304-1309. doi: 10.1073/ pnas.1715640115
16. Ho, S [Internet]. OPINION: Is There A Connection Between Luxury Fashion Brands’ Dirty Underground Secret And Italy’s Coronavirus Crisis? Green queen. Disponible en:
17. Lopez MM, Holmes SM. Raids on Immigrant Communities During the Pandemic Threaten the Country’s Public Health. Am J Public Health. 2020;el-e2. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305704
18. Chakraborty I, Maity P. COVID-19 outbreak: Migration, effects on society, global environment and prevention. Sci Total Environ. 2020;728:138882. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138882
19. Bryner J [Internet]. Why are so many people dying of COVID-19 in New York City? Life Science. Disponible en:
20. Guo ZD, Wang ZY, Zhang SF, Li X, Li L, Li C, et al. Aerosol and Surface Distribution of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Hospital Wards, Wuhan, China, 2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(7). doi: 10.3201/eid2607.200885.
21. Morawska L, Cao J. Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2: The world should face the reality. Environ Int. 2020;139:105730. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2020.105730
22. Haines A, Scheelbeek P. The health case for urgent action on climate change. BMJ. 2020;368:m1103. doi:10.1136/bmj.m1103
23. Wu X, Nethery RC, Sabath BM, Braun D, Dominici F. Exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 mortality in the United States: A nationwide cross-sectional study. medRvix. 2020. doi: 10.1101/2020.04.05.20054502
24. van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(16):1564-1567. doi: 10.1056/ NEJMc2004973
25. Setti L, Passarini F, De Gennaro G, Barbieri P, Perrone MG, Borelli M, et al. Airborne Transmission Route of COVID-19: Why 2 Meters/6 Feet of InterPersonal Distance Could Not Be Enough. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Apr 23;17(8):2932. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17082932
26. Setti L, Passarini F, De Gennaro G, Barbieri P, Pallavicini A, Ruscio M, et al. Searching for SARS-COV-2 on Particulate Matter: A Possible Early Indicator of COVID-19 Epidemic Recurrence. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(9):E2986. doi:10.3390/ijerph17092986
27. Tian H, Liu Y, Li Y, Wu CH, Chen B, Kraemer MUG, et al. An investigation of transmission control measures during the first 50 days of the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Science. 2020 May 8;368(6491):638-642. doi: 10.1126/ science.abb6105
28. Clerkin KJ, Fried JA, Raikhelkar J, Sayer G, Griffin JM, Masoumi A, et al. COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation. 2020;141(20):1648- 1655. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.046941
29. Fang L, Karakiulakis G, Roth M. Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection? Lancet Respir Med. 2020;8(4):e21. doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30116-8
30. Fauci AS, Lane HC, Redfield RR. Covid-19 - Navigating the Uncharted. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(13):1268-1269. doi:10.1056/NEJMe2002387
31. Chen G, Wu D, Guo W, et al. Clinical and immunological features of severe and moderate coronavirus disease 2019. J Clin Invest. 2020;130(5):2620- 2629. doi:10.1172/JCI137244
32. Liang WH, Guan WJ, Li CC, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 treated in Hubei (epicenter) and outside Hubei (non-epicenter): A Nationwide Analysis of China. Eur Respir J. 2020;2000562. doi:10.1183/13993003.00562-2020
33. Escher R, Breakey N, Lämmle B. Severe COVID-19 infection associated with endothelial activation. Thromb Res. 2020;190:62. doi:10.1016/j. thromres.2020.04.014
34. Leisman DE, Deutschman CS, Legrand M. Facing COVID-19 in the ICU: vascular dysfunction, thrombosis, and dysregulated inflammation. Intensive Care Med. 2020:1–4. doi: 10.1007/s00134-020-06059-6.
35. Ishiyama Y, Gallagher PE, Averill DB, Tallant EA, Brosnihan KB, Ferrario CM. Upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 after myocardial infarction by blockade of angiotensin II receptors. Hypertension. 2004;43(5):970-976. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000124667.34652.1a
36. Roca-Ho H, Riera M, Palau V, Pascual J, Soler MJ. Characterization of ACE and ACE2 Expression within Different Organs of the NOD Mouse. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(3):563. doi:10.3390/ijms18030563
37. Mehra MR, Desai SS, Kuy S, Henry TD, Patel AN. Cardiovascular Disease, Drug Therapy, and Mortality in Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;NEJMoa2007621. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2007621
LIZCANO, F.; GIRONE, M. G.. Circunstancias ambientales que pueden haber influido en la pandemia por COVID-19. Revista Colombiana de Endocrinología, Diabetes & Metabolismo, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 2S, p. 113-118, jul. 2020. ISSN 2389-9786. Disponible en: <>. Fecha de acceso: 11 ago. 2020