Microscopic anatomy of the normal thyroid gland. Basic principles for Endocrinology and Pathological anatomy residents, with a brief historical note
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Thyroid gland

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Heredia-Jara, A. ., & Ortiz-Hidalgo, C. (2022). Microscopic anatomy of the normal thyroid gland. Basic principles for Endocrinology and Pathological anatomy residents, with a brief historical note. Revista Colombiana De Endocrinología, Diabetes &Amp; Metabolismo, 8(4). https://doi.org/10.53853/encr.8.4.688


Background: It is necessary to know the normal histology of the thyroid gland to
understand the pathological processes of this gland.
Purpose: This is a practical review on the normal structure of the thyroid gland, aimed at residents of endocrinology and anatomical pathology.
Methodology: A bibliographic search was carried out on the normal histology of the
thyroid gland and histological material from the Department of Pathology of the Hospital Medica Sur (Mexico) was used.
Results: The normal thyroid gland is formed by two lateral lobes connected centrally by an isthmus. This gland is light brown in color and firm in consistency, weighing 15 to 25 g. In approximately 80 percent of individuals, a pyramidal lobe is present, extending upward from
the isthmus along the anterior surface of the thyroid cartilage. This lobe is a remnant of the thyroglossal duct. Histologically, the thyroid is formed by numerous spherical follicles average 200 ?m in diameter. Each follicle is lined by a flat to cuboidal to cylindrical epithelial cells and contains a central store of colloid secreted from the epithelial cells under the influence of the thyroid stimulating hormone. There is a second group of cells, the C cells or parafollicular cells mainly located in the upper poles of the thyroid lobes, which secrete calcitonin.
Conclusions: Various pathological processes occur in the thyroid gland therefore it is important to know its normal structure to properly interpret each process.

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