Sarcopenia, a new pathology that impacts old age
PDF (Español (España))
HTML (Español (España))


old man

How to Cite

Gutiérrez Cortés, W. A., Martínez Fernández, F. E., & Olaya Sanmiguel, L. C. (2018). Sarcopenia, a new pathology that impacts old age. Revista Colombiana De Endocrinología, Diabetes &Amp; Metabolismo, 5(1), 28–36.


Sarcopenia is a frequent syndrome in the elderly, characterized by a gradual, marked and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass related to aging, which is evidenced in the reduction of strength and agility, which can generate physical disability which in turn increase the degree of dependence of the patient thus diminishing their quality of life and increased mortality. The European Working Group on Elderly Sarcopenia EWGSOP uses for the diagnosis of sarcopenia the presence of decreased muscle mass and deficient muscular function that is determined by the strength or performance of the patient, this diagnosis is confirmed with the criteria that they are 1. Low muscle mass, 2. Less muscle strength, 3. Less physical performance. The current management of sarcopenia employs a non-pharmacological treatment that focuses on the change of lifestyles such as increasing physical activity and improving nutrition and pharmacological treatment, which aims to recover the functionality, mobility, muscle mass of the patients.
PDF (Español (España))
HTML (Español (España))


1. Irwin H. Rosenberg, sarcopenia: origins and clinical relevance; clinics geriatrics medicine 27, 2011, páginas 337-339.
2. Burgos Peláez Rosa; sarcopenia en ancianos; unidad de nutrición clínica. Servicio de endocrinología y nutrición. Hospital universitario de bellvitge. l’hospitalet de llobregat. Barcelona. España, endocrinol nutr. 2006; 53(5):335-44.
3. Alfonso J. Cruz-Jentoft et al, sarcopenia: consenso europeo sobre su defin ición y diagnóstico informe del grupo europeo de trabajo sobre la sarcopenia en personas de edad avanzada; age and ageing, volúmen 39, julio 2010, páginas 412-423.
4. Kyung Mook Choi; sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity; endocrinol metab, 2013; volumen 28:86-89.
5. Ian Janssen, W Donald S. Shepard, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, and Ronenn Roubenoff; the healthcare costs of sarcopenia in the united states; american geriatrics society. 2004; volumen 52:80-85.
6. Núñez Flores Dionisio. Prevalencia de la sarcopenia en hospital de día, hospital nacional de geriatría y gerontología, en el segundo semestre de 2012. Revista clínica de la escuela de medicina.2016; volumen 6: no 5.
7. Morley J.E. sarcopenia: diagnosis and treatment. the journal of nutrition, health & aging.2008; volume 12:452.
8. World Health Organization. ageing and life course. [Internet] 2017[citado en noviembre de 2017] disponible en url: http://www.who.Int/ageing/en/.
9. Beaudart Charlotte, Rizzoli Ren, Bruyère Olivier , Reginster Jean-Yves And Biver Emmanuel. sarcopenia: burden and challenges for public health. Archives of public health.2014; volumen 72:45.
10. Bruyere. O, Beaudart. C, Locquet. M, Buckinx. F, Petermans. J, Reginster J-Y. sarcopenia as a public health problema. eurger. 2015; 705:4.
11. Liang-kung chen et al; sarcopenia in asia: consensus report of the asian working group for sarcopenia. jamda.2014; 15: 95-101.
12. Limpawattana Panita, Kotruchin Praew, Pongchaiyakul Chatlert. sarcopenia in asia. elseviere osteoporosis and sarcopenia.2015; volumen 1: 92-97.
13. Em Lau, Hs Lynn. Prevalence of and risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly chinese men and women. j gerontol a biol sci med sci. Febrero 2005; volúmen 60(2):213-6.
14. Tae Nyun Kim et al, prevalence and determinant factors of sarcopenia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care. Julio 2010; volume 33: number 7.
15. Baumgartner Rn, Koehler Km, Gallagher D, Romero L, Heymsfield Sb, Ross Rr, Garry Pj, Lindeman Rd. Epidemiology of sarcopenia among the elderly in new mexico. Am j epidemiol. Abril 1998; 147(8):755-63.
16. Harnish P. Patel et al, Prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older people in the uk using the european working group on sarcopenia in older people (ewgsop) definition: findings from the hertfordshire cohort study (hcs). age and ageing ,2013; 42: 378-384.
17. Melton L. Joseph et al, Epidemiology of sarcopenia. jags, 2000; 48:625-630.
18. Dodds Richard Matthew, Roberts Helen Clare, Cooper Cyrus,And Sayer Avan Aihie. The Epidemiology Of Sarcopenia. Journal Of Clinical Densitometry: assessment & management of músculoskeletal health, 2015; vol: 16.
19. Iannuzzi-Sucich M, Prestwood Km, Kenny Am. Prevalence of sarcopenia and predictors of skeletal muscle mass in healthy, older men and women. j gerontol a biol sci med sci, 2002;57(12):m772-7.
20. Janssen Ian, Phd, Heymsfield Steven B, Ross Robert. Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability. jags, 2002; 50:889-896.
21. DANE Información Estratégica. Censo 2005. [Internet] 2017[citado en noviembre de 2017] disponible en url:
22. Janssen Ian, The Epidemiology Of Sarcopenia. Clin Geriatr Med ,2011; volu- men 27:355-363.
23. Woo Jean. Sarcopenia. Clin Geriatr Med, 2017.
24. Bruno vellas et al, sarcopenia: its asses ment, etiology, pathogenesis, consequences and future perspectives. j nutr health aging. Agosto - septiembre 2008; 12(7): 433-450.
25. J. De D. Beas-Jiménez, G. López-Lluch, I. Sánchez-Martínez, A. Muro-Jiménez, E. Rodríguez-Bies And P. Navas. Sarcopenia: implications of physical exercise in its pathophysiology, prevention And treatment. rev andal med deporte. 2011; 4(4):158-166.
26. T. Lang & T. Streeper & P. Cawthon & K. Baldwin & D. R. Taaffe & T. B. Harris. Sarcopenia: etiology, clinical consequences, intervention, and assessment, osteoporos int.2010;21: 543-559.
27. Walston Jeremy D. Sarcopenia In Older Adults. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2012, 24:623-627.
28. Gutiérrez Robledo Luis Miguel, Acosta Sergio Ley. Sarcopenia, diagnóstico diferencial e implicaciones terapéuticas en carlos d’hyver, luis miguel gutiérrez robledo. Geriatría. Tercera edición. México: editorial manual moderno; 2014.721-725.
29. Yu Jie, The etiology and exercise implications of sarcopenia in the elderly. international journal of nursing sciences.2015; 2:199-203
30. Sung Sup Park, Eun-Soo Kwon, Ki-Sun Kwon. Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic interventions in sarcopenia. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia. 2017; 3: 117-122.
31. World Health Organization.Nutrición. [Internet] 2017[citado en noviembre de 2017] disponible en url:
32. Dasarathy Srinivasan, Merli Manuela. Sarcopenia from mechanism to diagnosis and treatment in liver disease. journal of hepatology .2016; vol. 65:1232-1244.
33. Agustín Aibar-Almazán et al, Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in spanish community-dwelling middleaged and older women: association with balance confidence, fear of falling and fall risk. maturitas. 2018; 107:26-32.
34. World Health Organization. Sobrepeso y obesidad [internet] 2017[citado en noviembre de 2017] URL:
35. Timothy J. Doherty. Invited Review: Aging and sarcopenia. j appl physiol.2003; 95: 1717-1727.
36. Androga Lagu, Sharma Deep, Amodu Afolarin And K. Abramowitz Matthew. Sarcopenia, obesity, and mortality in us adults with and without chronic kidney disease. kidney int rep. 2017; 2: 201-211.
37. Sumbul Ali, Jose M. Garcia. Sarcopenia, Cachexia And Aging: Diagnosis, mechanisms and therapeutic options - a mini-review. karger ag, basel .2014:0304-324.
38. Tarantino Umberto et al, Sarcopenia and fragility fractures: molecular and clinical evidence of the bone-muscle interaction. j bone joint surg am. 2015; 97: 429-37.
39. M.H. Edwards, E.M. Dennison, A. Aihie Sayer, R. Fielding, C. Cooper. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia in older age. Bone. Noviembre 2015; volúmen 80.
40. Batsis John A., Mackenzie Todd A., Lopez-Jimenez Francisco, Bartels Stephen J. Sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, and functional impairments in older adults: national health and nutrition examination surveys 1999-2004. Nu- trition research .2015 december 2015, pages 1031-1039.
41. Mark H. Edwards, And Bjoern Buehring. Novel approaches to the diagnosis of sarcopenia. journal of clinical densitometry. Octubre 2015; volumen 18: paginas 472-477.
42. Volpi E Bartels Stephen J Exogenus amino acids stimulate net muscle protein synthesis in the elderly. J. Clinics invest. 1980; 101: 200-7.
43. Peláezburgos R. enfoque terapéutico global de la sarcopenia. nutr. hosp. 2006; 21 (supl. 3): 51-60.
44. Delosreyesad, Bagchi D, Preuss Hg. Overview of resistance training, diet, hormone replacement and nutricional supplements on age-related sarcopenia. A mini-review. Res commun mol pathol pharmacol. 2003; 113:159- 70.
45. Vukovich Md, Stubbs Nb, Bohlken Rm. Body composition in 70-year old adults responds to dietary b-hydroxy-b-methilbutarate similarly to that of young adults. j nutr. 2001; 131:2049-52.
46. Volpi E, Kobayashi H,Sheffieldmoorem, Wolferr.Essential amino acids are primarily responsible for the amino acid stimulation of muscle protein anabolism in healthy elderly adults. am j clin nutr. 2003; 78:250-8.
47. Rizzoli R. Nutrition And Sarcopenia. Jorunal of clinical Densitometry. 2015; 8: 483-487.
48. Paddon J, Rasmussen,B.B. Dietary Protein recommedations and the prevention of sarcopenia: protein,amino acid metabolism and terapy. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metanolic care. 2009; 12:86.
49. Dominguez C. Hugo. Nutrición en la sarcopenia. Mundo entrenamiento el deporte bajo evidencia científica. 2017 (11Noviembre). Disponible en:
50. Bischoff Ha, et al, Effects of vitamin d and calcium supplementation on falls: a randomized controlled trial. j bone miner res. 2003; 18: 343-51.
51. Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Minne Hw, Suppan K, Fahrleitner-Pammer A, Dobnig H. Effects of a long-terma vitamin and calcium supplementation on falls and parameters of muscle function in community-dwellling olders individuasl. Osteroporos int 2009; 20(2): 315-322.
52. Geriatrics Society Workgroup On Vitamin D Supplementation For Older Adults. Recommendations abstracted from the American geriatrics society consensus statement on vitamin d for prevention of falls and their consequences. J Am Geriatr Soc 2014; 62(1):147-52.
53. Lappe M.J, Binkley Neil. Vitamin D in sarcopenia/falls. Journal of clinical densitometry. 2015; vol18: 4478-482.
54. La Colla A, Pronsato L, Milanesi L, Vasconsuelo A. 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone in sarcopenia: role of satellite cells. ageing res rev 2015; 24: 166-77.
55. Finkelstein Js, Lee H, Burnett-Bowie Sa, Pallais Jc, Yu Ew, Borges Lf. gonadal steroids and body composition, strength, and sexual function in men. N Engl J Med 2013; 369:1011-22.
56. Starka L. testosterone treatment of sarcopenia. Vnitr lek 2006; 52:909-11.
57. Park S.S, Kwon E.S, Kwonk.S.Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic interventions in sarcopenia. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia. 2017; vol 3: 117-122.
58. Salomon F,Cuneorc, Hesp R. The Effects of treatment with recombinant human growth hormone on body composition and metabolism in adults with growth hormone deficiency.nenglj med. 1989; 321:1797-803.
59. Jorgensen Jo, Vahl N,Hansentb. Growth hormoneversusplacebo treatment for one year in growth hormone deficient adults: increase in exercise capacity and normalization on body composition. clin endocrinol (oxf ). 1996; 45:681.
60. Rudman D et al, Effects of human growth hormonein men over 60 years old. N. Engl Jour Med, 1990; 323:1-6.
61. Papadakis Ma et al, Growth hormone replacement in healthy older men improves body composition but no functional ability. Ann Internal Med. 1996; 124: 708-16.
62. Cohn et al, carpal tunnerl syndrome and gynecomastia during growth hormone treatment of elderly men with low circulating IGF-1 concentrations. Clinics endocrinol. 1993; 39; 417-25.
63. Yarasheski Ke, Zachwieja Jj. Growth hormone therapy for the elderly: the fountain of youth proves toxic. Jama. 1993; 270: 1694.
64. Tisdale Mj, Dhesi Jk. Inhibition of weight loss by omega3 fatty acids in an experimental cachexia model. Cancer res. 1990; 50:5022-6
65. Yeh Ss, Schuster Mw. Geriatric Cachexia: The Role Of Cytokines. Am j clin nutr. 1999; 70:183-97.
66. Doherty Gm, Jensen Jc, Alexander Hr, et al, pentoxiftline suppression of tumor necrosis factor gene transcription. Surgey. 1991; 110: 192-8.
67. Mantovani G, Maccio A, Esu S, Et al. medroxyprogesterone acetate reduces theinvitro production of cytokines and serotonin envolved in anorexia/ cachexia and emesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of cancer patients. Eur j canc. 1997; 33:602-7.
68. Yeh Ss, Wu Sy, Lee Tp, Et Al. Improvement in quality-of-life measures and stimulation of weight gain after treatment with megestrol acetate oral suspension in geriatric cachexia: results of a double-blind placebo-controlled study. j am geriatr soc. 2000; 48:485-92.
69. Nelson Me et al, Physical activity and public health in older adults: recommendation from the American college of sports medicine and the american herat association. Med Sci sports execer 2007; 39: 1435-45.
70. Williams MA, Haskell Wl, Ades Pa,et al. Resitance exercise in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease: 2007 update: Circulatión 2007; 116: 572-84.
71. Cadore El, Casas-Herrero A, Zambom-Ferraresi F, Et Al. Multicomponent exercises including muscle power training enhance muscle mass, power output, and functional outcomes in institutionalized frail nonagenarians. age (dordr). 2014; 36:773-85.
72. Yarasheski Ke. Exercise, aging and muscle protein metabolism.j gerontol biol sci med sci. 2003; 58:918-22.
73. Fiatarone Ma, O’neill Ef, Ryan Nd, Et Al. Exercise training and nutritional supplementation for physical frailty in very elderly people. N engl j med. 1994; 330:1769-75.
74. Kraemer Rr, Castracane Vd.Novel Insights Regarding Mechanisms For Treatment Of Sarcopenia. Metabolism 2015; 64:160-2.

Authors must state that they reviewed, validated and approved the manuscript's publication.  Moreover, they must sign a model release that should be sent.  A copy may be reviewed here




Download data is not yet available.