Introduction: The pituitary gland and the sellar region can be affected by a wide variety of lesions that originate via different pathophysiological mechanisms. In Colombia, there is scarce data reflecting the distribution and histopathological characteristics of these lesions.
Objective: To describe the histopathological characteristics of the pituitary gland and sellar region lesions in two institutions of the Santander region in Colombia.
Materials and methods: Descriptive and retrospective study. Pathology reports from patients of all ages from two reference centers in the region with a diagnosis of sellar, suprasellar or parasellar disease that underwent surgical resection were included in this study.
Results: 113 pathology reports were reviewed. The lesions most frequently identified were pituitary adenomas (66.6%), followed by craniopharyngiomas (19.8%) and meningiomas (2.5%). In the pediatric population, craniopharyngiomas were the predominant lesions (75%). Within the adenomas, those of null and gonadotropic cell origins were the most prevalent tumors and most of them showed a low expression of Ki-67. The inconsistent description of the presence of cytokeratin CAM 5.2 and of electron microscopy prevented the classification of the lesions based on these findings. The most frequently identified variant of craniopharyngiomas in both adults and children was the adamantinomatous variant.
Conclusion: The distribution of the pituitary and sellar lesions in this study was similar to that reported in the literature. Importantly, craniopharyngiomas were identified as the second most common lesions after pituitary adenomas. A greater degree of uniformity and widespread use of histopathological criteria of pituitary adenomas is required in order to attain a more appropriate clinical interpretation and an optimal use of these resources.
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