In the early 1900s (1902), researchers Bayliss and Starling described that pancreatic secretions were produced by chemical stimuli as well as neural stimuli, and that secretions coming from the intestine contained "something" that was released into the circulation and had the ability to stimulate pancreatic secretions, the first hormone being named secretin. These findings contributed to the understanding that there are key interactions between hormones and the nervous system, which are necessary for gastrointestinal functions. A few years later these hormones were considered to contribute to glucose regulation in diabetic patients, supported by Barre's experiments, and the effect of incretin, given by gastrointestinal hormones after oral glucose loading, was later clarified by research published by Perley and Kipnis. In 1983 a glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) was isolated from the intestine and found to stimulate insulin secretion and inhibit glucagon secretion, as well as inhibitory effects on food intake and gastric emptying, which prompted the development of GLP-1-based treatments.
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