Approaching insulinoma: An updated review of the literature
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molecular biology
neoplasm staging
gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor

How to Cite

Castro Gomez, K. G., Contreras Romero, J. A., Afanador Jaimes, D. V., Álvarez Herrera, L. V., Gaitán Díaz, N. L., & Saavedra López, H. F. (2024). Approaching insulinoma: An updated review of the literature. Revista Colombiana De Endocrinología, Diabetes &Amp; Metabolismo, 11(1).


Background: Insulinoma originates in the ?-cells of the pancreatic islets, in which insulin release is autonomous, avoiding counter-regulatory mechanisms. There are several proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, based on the presence of germinal or somatic pathogenic variants.

Objective: To provide information on the etiopathogenesis, genetics, epidemiology, clinic, diagnosis, staging, localization, treatment, and prognosis of insulinoma.

Methodology: Literature review in the PubMed database, Google Scholar and gray literature using the MeSH terms: “insulinoma”, “physiopathology”, “epidemiology“, “signs and symptoms”, “diagnosis”, “therapeutics”, “prognosis”, “gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor” and by review of bibliographical references list (in "snowball") of the selected studies.

Results: Insulinoma is the most common pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with a nonspecific clinical presentation, which should be considered in the presence of adrenergic and neuroglycopenic symptoms, for which there is a range of diagnostic tools that should be used in a complementary approach given their limited sensitivity, and treatment should be oriented according to the characterization and staging of the tumor.

Conclusions: The diagnosis of insulinoma is delayed for several years due to its nonspecific clinical features, despite its mostly benign behavior, it is associated with great morbidity.
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