Tasa metabólica basal ¿una medición sin fundamento adecuado?

  • P. E. Sánchez Clínica Las Américas, Medellín
  • J. P. Polanco Clínica Las Américas, Medellín
  • R. J. Rosero Clínica Las Américas, Medellín

Resumen

La energía necesaria para la regulación de las funciones fisiológicas depende del equilibrio entre el aporte y el gasto energético. Un disbalance entre estas condiciones, donde se vea favorecido el consumo sobre el gasto, lleva a un incremento de la reserva, el cual, a su vez, favorece la hipertrofia e hiperplasia del tejido adiposo; en condiciones crónicas, este reservorio energético lleva a la obesidad. A través del uso de fórmulas, se ha tratado calcular la tasa metabólica basal para considerar el aporte óptimo energético y, por ende, la individualización en la prescripción de estrategias nutricionales en el paciente sano y con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ECNT). Sin embargo, estas fórmulas no han sido evaluadas ni validadas para todas las poblaciones y menos en obesidad, que es, de forma coincidente, la población donde más se usan en la práctica clínica, además del poco conocimiento en medicina y la mayor aplicación por nutrición. El propósito de este artículo es revisar los elementos que constituyen las fórmulas de cálculo de la tasa metabólica basal (TMB) y la población de estudio para evidenciar la usabilidad de estas fórmulas en la práctica clínica en pacientes sanos y con ECNT, como la obesidad y diabetes mellitus, dada la importancia que esto representa en el contexto del balance energético.

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Biografía del autor

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Médico Internista y Endocrinólogo, Centro de Obesidad Dismetabolismo y Deporte (COD2), Clínica Las Américas, Medellín, Colombia.

##submission.authorWithAffiliation##

Médico Internista y Epidemiólogo, Centro de Obesidad Dismetabolismo y Deporte (COD2), Clínica Las Américas, Medellín, Colombia.

##submission.authorWithAffiliation##

Médico Internista y Endocrinólogo, Centro de Obesidad Dismetabolismo y Deporte (COD2), Clínica Las Américas, Medellín, Colombia.

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Publicado
2020-04-24
##submission.howToCite##
SÁNCHEZ, P. E.; POLANCO, J. P.; ROSERO, R. J.. Tasa metabólica basal ¿una medición sin fundamento adecuado?. Revista Colombiana de Endocrinología, Diabetes & Metabolismo, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 1, p. 30-36, abr. 2020. ISSN 2389-9786. Disponible en: <http://revistaendocrino.org/index.php/rcedm/article/view/565>. Fecha de acceso: 04 jul. 2020
Sección
Articulos de Revisión